Basics of Logics (Arguments, Assumptions and Conclusions)

Arguments Assumptions Conclusions – Basics of Logics

Hello Readers

Today we are going to discuss the topic related to Analytical Reasoning i.e. Basics of Logics  (Arguments, Assumptions and Conclusions)

In examinations, the questions are asked by stating some arguments, followed by certain interferences based on the facts and we have to analyse those facts to reach some assumptions or conclusions.

Or we can say, we have to find answers to the following questions –

  • What is the interference of the argument?
  • What are the assumptions of this argument?
  • What are the strengthening points of this argument?
  • Whether this argument is weak or strong?


So, in order to find these answers, first we should know the meaning of these words.


Let’s start discussing the meaning of these words.


  • Arguments

An argument is a sequence of two or more phrases, clauses, sentences or statements which includes a claim or a conclusion.

In argument based questions, Statements are generally concerned with a political, social or economic issue, followed by certain arguments in favour of or against the statements. We have to distinguish between the strong and weak arguments.


Arguments Assumptions Conclusions


First, we will analyse the statement and then arguments in context of the statements and finally decide which of the arguments hold(s) strong and help(s) in formulating the most appropriate opinion of the subject.

Let’s understand this with the help of example –


Statement –

Should ‘education’ be brought under the control of the Central Government like defence?

Arguments –

  1. No. Education is a state subject and it should remain with the state.
  2. Yes. This is the only way to establish uniformity in growth of education across the states.

Solution –

First analyse the statement – It is related to the management and control of the education sector.

Now, analyse the arguments

The education sector is vast and should be handled at the state level, rather than by single body at the Centre. As it needs constant monitoring and assessment policies to be look after to provide benefits of the education to the masses.

So, the answer is (a)


  • Assumptions

An assumption is the hidden statement or proposition or premise having a judgement or opinion or through which conclusion can be inferred. Or in simple words, we can say it is something that can be supposed or assumed on the basis of given arguments or statements.


  • Conclusions

As we have discussed above, that we have to find the conclusion(s). Let’s understand the meaning of the conclusion.

Conclusions are the facts that can be inferred from the information given in the arguments.

Conclusions of the argument can be appear anywhere and usually have some signal words before any sentence for the readers. The list of such words is as follows:

  • Therefore
  • Thus
  • So
  • Hence
  • Consequently
  • As a result
  • It follows that
  • It can be inferred that
  • Which shows that
  • Which suggests that
  • Which proves that
  • Which means that


If the signal words are absent, we can ask ourselves this question, “Before which of these sentences can I put one of these signal words/phrases?”

In simple language we can say, we have to find “What the author is trying to prove?” 


So, with this we will conclude this topic here.

We must do daily practice to score good in this topic.For this,we will post some related quizzes


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